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Equations
Most papers include some equations. Make sure to properly format and reference your equations.
Numbering
Equations are typically numbered. In general, equation numbers should be given in parentheses and placed on the righthand side of the page.
Then, is expressed as
(1)
Equation references in text
Equations should be referenced in the text as "Eq. (X)", "equation (X)", or "(X)" (check guidelines).
… is shown in Eq. (1). 

… are shown in Eqs. (1) and (2). 

… are shown in Eqs. (1)(5). 

For some journals, "Equation (X)" is required at the start of a sentence. Also note that some journals prefer "eq. (X)" and "eqs. (X)" (check guidelines). 
… is shown in equation (1). 

… are shown in equations (1) and (2). 

… are shown in equations (1)(5). 
… is shown in (1). 

… are shown in (1) and (2). 

… are shown in (1)(5). 

Note that "Equation" is often used at the start of a sentence (check guidelines). 

Equation (1) is used to … 
Variable definitions
Make sure that you define all variables in an equation. Definitions usually come after the equation and are introduced by the word "where". Note that "where" is not indented and is not followed by a comma.
where, x is the … 

where x is the … 
The expression can be written as:

where is the …
The expression can be written as:
where is the …